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It delivers features such as group calls (VGCS), voice broadcast (VBS), location-based connections, and call pre-emption in case of an emergency.
The specification is being maintained by the International Union of Railways project ERTMS.The system is based on GSM and EIRENE – MORANE specifications which guarantee performance at speeds up to 500 km/h (310 mph), without any communication loss.GSM-R will probably be supplanted by LTE-R, However, LTE is generally considered to be a "4G" protocol, and some railways are considering moving to something "5G" based depending on the timing of their upgrade cycle, thus skipping a technological generation.Meanwhile, Telecommunication operators, the Australian Telecommunications-Regulator ACMA, and rail-operators are in a discussion about whether to free up spectrum in the DCS-1800 band for public mobile services.As of 8 March 2011 the granted licenses for GSM-R in the DCS-1800 band are due to expire between 20.
GSM-R is typically implemented using dedicated base station masts close to the railway, with tunnel coverage effected using directional antennae or 'leaky' feeder transmission. This creates a high degree of redundancy and higher availability and reliability.